The general perception of the construction industry productivity is declining -0.6 % per year (+1.8% per year non-farm productivity increase; significant improvement in some work processes). There has been much debate over the root cause of this decline. It can almost certainly be attributed to underinvestment in construction R&D, a shift in output mix, and slow growth in capital/worker ratio. Debate and uncertainty continue as no industry-level productivity measures exist. It is only with increased innovation that productivity in this essential industry is going to increase.