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Lower-tier APEC economies should participate in discussion forums for continuous assessing and monitoring of the cutting-edge innovative regulatory tools that leader economies have explored.

Lower-tier economies should participate in discussion forums for continuous assessing and monitoring of the cutting-edge innovative regulatory tools and best practices that leader economies have explored in the hope of surmounting the challenges. They include: Reforming the ICT sector in an economy-specific framework of change management; Establishing a separate telecom/ICT regulator (among 21 APEC economies investigated, China, Hong Kong, Russia, and Vietnam have no separate entity for ICT regulation and policy); Extending telecom/ICT policy beyond the traditional core areas to include broadcasting content, Internet content, cybersecurity, and green IT policies for climate change; Setting clear dispute resolution mechanisms in a regulatory framework; and Aggressively reforming the spectrum allocation process more toward market-based allocation.