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The IEA should develop clean energy innovation agreements to demonstrate new technologies.

To coordinate high-income countries’ investments in RD&D with low-income countries’ willingness to host clean energy pilot and demonstration projects, IEA should implement “Clean Energy Innovation Agreements,” modeled on the Agency’s Technology Implementing Agreements. These agreements should be revised or complemented to also include low-income countries aiming to expand clean energy access by hosting projects that pilot and demonstrate breakthrough clean energy technologies—with strong and proper IP protections—that otherwise would struggle to advance from the lab bench in high-income countries.