More so than other high schools, math and science high schools produce benefits that local communities, and even states will not capture. Rather than be seen as solely the responsibility of local school districts, or even of states, they should be seen for what they are: a critical part of the nation’s scientific and technological infrastructure. Congress and the Administration should set a goal of approximately quadrupling enrollment at such high schools to around 250,000 students. This will require both the creation of a significant number of new high schools, and the expansion of others with room to grow. Moreover, these funds should go toward establishing MSHSs focused on underrepresented populations. States and/or local school districts would be required to match every dollar of federal support with two dollars of state and local funding. Industry funding would count toward the state and/or local school district match.